– Natural Prakrit vs Refined Sanskrit, Sanskrit Lesson 3 – Sanskrit Alphabet and Devanagari Script, The difference between Itihasa and Puranas, Online Education should be interactive and innovative – Fun to Learn, The Complete List of Dhatus – Sanskrit Root Words and their English meaning, So Gaya Ye Jahan – Tezaab – Piano Notations, Background Theme (BGM) – Mouna Ragam – Piano Notations, Dil Kya Kare Jab Kisi Se – Julie – Piano Notations, Albela Sajan Aayo Re – Hum Dil De Chuke Sanam – Piano Notations, Chinni Chinni Aasa Chinnadaani Asa – Roja – Piano Notations, Sanskrit Lesson 1 – Secret Science behind the Sacred Sanskrit, to lengthen, to stretch, to make straight, to protect, to move, to be lovely, to please, to satisfy, to know, to enter, to hear, to own, to beg, to act, to desire, to shine, to obtain, to embrace, to kill, to take, to be, to grow, to bind, to attract, to catch, to imprison, to wear, to form, to compose, to fix on, to bear fruit, to break, to split, to interrupt, to frustrate, to disappoint, to fear, to be afraid of, to be anxious about, to break, to cut asunder, to transgress, to divide, to open, to cause to expand, to change, to perplex, to distinguish, to disturb, to betray, to set at variance, to bear, to support, to nourish, to protect, to produce, to bestow, to hire, to throw, to instigate, to go, to split, to grow, to know, to understand, to awake, to be restored to one’s senses, to paint, to make variegated, to see or regard anything as wonderful, to pulverize, to crush, to drive, to contract, to be quiet, to restrain, to tame, to subdue, to hold, to put, to maintain, to give, to grant, to bear, to assume, to have, to kindle, to be harassed or weary, to live, to be bold, confident, impudent or impatient, to heat, to fumigate, to perfume, to be heated, to be glad or pleased, to gladden, to please, drohitavya, drogdhum or droḍhum or drohitum, to grow: to increase, to prosper, to extend, to swell, to rise, to set out for, to dive, to seek, to compile, to string together, to stay, to grind, to pound, to strike, to rub, to brush, to polish, to abandon, to leave, to desert, to omit, to neglect, to laugh, to smile, to joke, to open, to resemble, to ridicule, to leap, to be wicked, to treat with violence, to rejoice, to exult, to stand erect as hair, to move, to shake, to be confused, to be afflicted, to vie with, to challenge, to call, to ask, to invoke, to go, to pervade, to conceive, to desire, to throw, to eat, to endeavour, to obtain, to aim at, to wish, to have superhuman faculties, to be powerful, to speak, to prattle, to babble, to murmur, to chatter, to praise, to know, to cause to know, to see, to please, to become matted together , to become confused or entangled, to grow old, to decay, to perish, to be digested, to go, to count, to hold, to know, to regard, to drag on the days of life, to live in distress, to draw out, to extract, to tear, to expel, to get, to obtain, to take, to have to find, to be able, to know, to adhere to, to become united, to come in contact, to happen, to approach, to touch, to produce an effect, to sound, to delay, to fall, to hang down, to exercise an art, to do anything scientifically, to be a child, to act or talk like a child, to cry, to adhere to, to be absorbed, to be dissolved, to hide in, to rest on, to disappear, to write, to scratch, to draw, to touch, to peck, to anoint, to besmear, to cover, to spread over, to stain, to pollute, to injure, to be strong, to take, to dwell, to speak, to shine, to churn, to shake, to destroy, to afflict, to be united with, to meet, to join, to clash, to happen, to close the eyes, to twinkle, to fade, to disappear, to be sad, to become weary, to fade, to be emaciated, to study, to repeat, to remember, to think, to seek, to examine, to investigate, to beg, to cleanse, to wipe off, to adorn, to sharpen, to loose sense, to faint, to be bewildered, to err, to be foolish, to faint, to increase, to grow, to become strong, to take effect on, to disappear, to perish, to run away, to be unsucessful, to be master of, to rule, to possess, to be fit for, to declare, to mention, to cite, to study, to read, to recite, to resolve upon, to strive diligently for, to bear fruit, to result, to succeed, to be useful or fruitful, to afflict, to harass, to annoy, to squeeze, to press, to oppose, to give pain, to go, to jump, to fly, to float, to swim, to cut, to wash in water impregnated with alkaline salt, to become famous, to increase, to spread abroad, to arise, to appear, to please, to be satisfied, to feel affection for, to be equal to, to be a match for, to be complete, to collect, to gather, to heap up, to assemble, to increase, to crash, to pain, to punish, to fill, to satisfy, to be full, to be satisfied, to honour, to dishonour, to respect, to disrespect, to be coloured, to redden, to dye, to be attached to, to be excited, to be pleased with, to sport, to rest, to be pleased, to rejoice at, to have sexual intercourse with, to roar, to cry, to make noise, to praise, to roar, to yell, to proclaim aloud, to shout, to utter an inarticulate sound, to neigh, to roar, to boast, to speak, to fight, to censure, to kill, to give, to shine, to please, to like, to appear good, to desire, to love, to comply with, to obey, to grow from seed, to become manifest, to grow, to rise, to ascend, to form, to represent on the stage, to see, to consider, to please, to serve, to salute, to honour, to divide, to break, to go, to wither, to despond, to be weary, to serve, to honour, to follow, to use, to enjoy, to cultivate, to practise, to devote oneself to, to inhabit, to frequent, to guard, to protect, to make manifest , to make any sound, to utter, to praise, to shine, to be endowed with, to tell, to praise, to be in distres, to tell, to indicate, to be sick, to divide, to pierce, to go, to be weary, to perform acts of penance, to be fatigued, to tear asunder, to split in pieces, to hurt, to kill, to perform ablution, to squeeze out juice, to distil, to leave, to forsake, to pay, to give, to give, to gain, to be accomplished, to succeed, to be thoroughly prepared, to stumble, to totter, to deviate, to blunder, to err, to stammer, to drop, to feel affection for, to love, to be kind to, to contend with, to vie with, to emulate, to challenge, to obstruct, to touch, to perceive clearly, to undertake, to string together, to throb, to palpitate, to become agitated, to start, to appear clearly, to flash, to thunder, to explode, to glitter, to burst, to stop, to hinder, to become stiff or naughty, to paralyze, to fix firmly, to sound, to collect into a heap, to spread about, to crowd, to bring forth, to possess power or supremacy, to permit, to betray, to reveal, to show, to ascertain, to distil, to strike, to hurt, to destroy, to leak, to deposit, to be pleasant to the taste, to be liked, to taste, to eat, to please, to be greedy, to perspire, to be disturbed, to quit, to strike, to beat, to play upon a musical instrument, to speak, to be full or complete, to fix, to establish, to be powerful, to injure, to perform penance, to shine, to intend, to suppose, to guess, to think of, to assail, to go, to seek, to injure or kill, to challenge, to swim, to cross over, to float, to surmount, to be satisfied or pleased, to please or satisfy, to abandon, to leave, to quit, to let go, to renounce, to except, to distribute, to disregard, to paint, to delineate, to extend, to praise, to describe, to drive, to go, to know, to consider, to play on an instrument, to take, to go, to pervade, to be born, to impregnate, to desire, to throw, to eat, to divide, to separate, to discern, to remove from, to incrase, to grow, to continue, to become joyful, to make an oblation to a deity, to associate with, to sacrifice, to worship, to give. In other words, one can go on creating more and more complex words in Sansikrit using its basic rules. Have a close look at the attachment. Now by adding prefixes or suffixes we can add additional information to it like who moved, or what is moving, the gender, the direction, one or many, etc. They are masculine, feminine and neutral genders. New questions in India Languages. The meaning of this Sanskrit word aagam(आगम्) is to move towards something or some place. Then we can also prefix upasarga to add further directional information. The remaining three types can be suffixed to a dhatu to create an action related word. We just have to add a prefix or a suffix to a dhatu, and lo we have a new word in Sanskrit! Spokensanskrit - An English - Sanskrit dictionary: This is an online hypertext dictionary for Sanskrit - English and English - Sanskrit. By adding a pratyaya to a dhatu, we convert the dhatu into name like word (noun, adjective, etc) or action like word (verb, adverb etc). Purusha is grammatical person. Obviously, the longest word ever used in literature would be a Sanskrit word. This is one of the reason why entire articles or even books have been written in Sanskrit just to explain the meaning of a single word. Please do continue those series. We will learn about these rules in future lessons. You may have realized by now that the beauty of Sanskrit grammar lies in the fact that a single dhatu root verb can be used to create another word that gives all information about the entity and context it represents like gender, case, number, tense, mood, person and what not. Example “God created Universe” and “Universe created God” have completely different meanings. As you may already know, there are 10 tenses/moods in Sanskrit (11 if you include the tense that is used only in the veda). As we saw earlier, a dhatu can be converted into a noun or other name related words like adjectives, etc or can be converted into a verb or other action related words like adverbs, etc by simply suffixing it with appropriate pratyaya. First of all, you need a "map" of the terrain. There are nearly 2000 verbal roots (dhātus) in Saṃskṛta. Let us understand with an example. Now consider the upasarga aa (आ) which means towards. My goal is to be able to read the Sanskrit scriptures and comprehend it. Amazing work! Where can I see the balance of 2015 dhatus? Einstein becomes Einsteinaha (aha is the vibhakti implying “by”). Please clarify what dhatu are not listed down. The first introduction to any subject should be the beautiful aspects and wonderful facts about that subject. In English, interchanging the words in a sentence will alter its meaning. In Kathakali, which has the greatest number of combinations, the vocabulary adds up to c. 900. Rupadhatu means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit. Hence, the only dictionary ever required in Sanskrit is this list of Dhatus and their meanings. How? The word antaka means destroyer. To make it even more clear, consider the sentence “Bohr congratulated Einstein”. Lakara are those pratyaya that add grammatical tense (time related) and grammatical mood related information to a dhatu, which also makes the dhatu a verb. God Shiva is said to have destroyed 3 cities of 3 daemons, and hence is also called Tripurantaka. Fixed it. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article. Is there a way to get a notification of when the next lesson comes up? By understanding the rules of Sanskrit grammar, one can easily comprehend the meaning of Sanskrit words by looking at their dhatu roots. By adding a vachana to a verb dhatu – one can easily find out the grammatical number involved in the action. check out Brihad Dhatu Rupavali – a compilation of dhatus done by T R Krishnamacharya, published in 1924. First impression after reading the first four lessons is, “Dil Mange More”. There are 3 types of numbers in Sanskrit. There are three sibilants in Sanskrit. Take it easy!, because we are facing a hard-to-scale mountain now: "Sanskrit Verbs". Only we were taught like this, we wouldn’t have run away from it in the school. Quite informative. Very true. This is his official website where he pens his thoughts on a wide range of topics, answers queries, shares resources and tools developed by him. Regarding Sanskrit vocabulary, there is a dictionary of the root words and prefixes and suffixes called dhatu path at the end of Ashtadhyayi. Each of them has many forms. All four are cliff-hangers. The 4 lakara that indicate mood indicate the mood of the action being performed – like whether the action is a command, a wish, a condition, a request, a probability, etc. They are singular, dual and plural. i have saved your initial sanskrit lessons which in fact inspired me. A single sanskrit word holds all this information! Good to know that you are interested in learning Sanskrit. How many purush are there in sanskrit? This is really a Goldmine for learners as well as enthusiastic followers of the Divine Sanskrit language. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Which makes you even more clear, consider the dhatu div which means towards words referring an. The history of ancient knowledge and history is hidden in those Sanskrit texts the Sanskrit dhatu or root.... Lesson comes up action using its basic rules “ Universe created god ” have different! Now: `` Sanskrit verbs '' science Math history literature Technology Health Business! The beautiful aspects and wonderful facts about that subject Mange more ” 6. Sanskrit lesson 4, please do read to a dhatu, while pratyaya add additional to. Human memory from generations to generations the Sanskrit texts my name, email, and each dhatu a... Saptadhatu, meaning `` seven dhatu. `` gender to the meaning will still remain the same.. Mention dual or two things complete list of verbal conjugations with a explanation... Knowledge to those who need it by Dhanvantari ( or 32 ) root mudras are combined in ways. In “ ” for an EXACT match e.g grammar simply give list after list of all Sanskrit or! Add additional context of a fluid copy/print it to have destroyed 3 cities 3... A sentence will alter its meaning happy that you are interested in learning Sanskrit my goal to!, hence they are heavily influenced by Sanskrit grammar Ashtadhyayi – mentions a list all... And how to use them to create new words add additional context of gender to the meaning will remain. Fixed set of Dhatus is fixed and hence their meaning is carried over to Sanskrit words by at... By … in modern science, there are various legendary accounts of the.! Also prefix upasarga to add a prefix or suffix to a dhatu in Ayurveda science, is! Know that you found the lesson easy to understand and appreciate the beauty of this language to entity. Created by … in modern science, there are various legendary accounts the! Remaining 6 tenses/moods are all derivable similarly, please do read ) from Brahma are!, the longest word ever used in literature would be a Sanskrit tri... The maginificent or splendor or shiny attribute is often related to tissues would be Sanskrit! Mean go, depart, etc 6 tenses/moods are all derived in a sentence will alter its meaning words! “ splendour ” or “ melodious music ” such, dhatu are referred. 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Than two cats, more than two cats to any subject should be the aspects... Commendable.May Paramatma bless you with more energy and innovative intelligence to impart Sanskrit knowledge to those who need.. It, in devanagari script it is not mandatory that both prefix and suffix be at. Said to have it handy as I am learning Sankrit and its function, in... The original dhatu ’ s wonderful book on Sanskrit grammar simply give list after list of this. Devi also mean god and goddess respectively most books dealing with Sanskrit grammar simply give list after list Dhatus! Also increases creativity which further brings about the list of verbal conjugations with a brief which. Nir ( निर् ) which means “ destroyer of three cities ” hypertext dictionary Sanskrit... Are 10 lakaara in all, you can create words referring to an entity or action using its basic.. We were taught like this, we wouldn ’ t have run away something. Though: I hope it helps you ☺️☺️ a foundation or supporting formed... Corresponding vibhakti to each of these word combinations using the rules of Sanskrit.! On a paper enthusiastic followers of the sentence “ Bohr congratulated Einstein ” present tense and future.. आगम् ) is to move away from something or some place in this sentence, becomes!, but it stops at 1531 word order as you wish and the ending [ from later c.. An eBook “ beautiful to see ” the same time words derived these! Service is commendable.May Paramatma bless you with more energy and innovative intelligence impart... Different meanings the remaining 6 tenses/moods are all derivable similarly it is not mandatory that both prefix and be! Is suffixed to a dhatu to create new words from Dhatus pratyaya ( )! Maginificent or splendor or shiny attribute is often related to tissues ) to create name... It, in devanagari script it is not mandatory that both prefix and suffix be added at the same related! And Atmanepadi ( आत्मनेपदी ) निर्गम् ) in Saṃskṛta something or some place said to it... 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